Openness, Fluid Intelligence, and Crystallized Intelligence: Toward an Integrative Model
Matthias Ziegler, Erik Danay, Moritz Heene, Jens Asendorpf, Markus Bühner
Many studies are concerned with the bivariate relationships between Openness, fluid intelligence (Gf), and crystallized intelligence (Gc). Results suggest an influence of Gf and Openness on Gc. However, the overlap between Gf and Openness is rarely controlled for. Moreover, interaction effects or longitudinal influences are also often neglected. The present two studies aimed to elucidate exactly these interactions and longitudinal influences. Besides a main effect of Gf on Gc, Study 1 (N=180) revealed an interaction effect between Openness and Gf. Study 2 utilized longitudinal data (N=173) and identified an effect of Openness on the development of Gf. Gf and Openness predicted Gc 6 years later. A model integrating the results and providing a theoretical framework and outlook is proposed.