STUDY ALERT: Unpacking grit: Motivational correlates of perseverance and passion for long-term goals

Unpacking grit: Motivational correlates of perseverance and passion for long-term goals 

Katherine R. Von Culina, Eli Tsukayamab and Angela L. Duckworthb

In two cross-sectional studies, we explored the motivational orientations correlates of the character strength of grit and its two component facets: perseverance of effort and consistency of interests over time. Specifically, we examined how individual differences in grit are explained by distinct approaches to pursuing happiness in life: pleasure in immediately hedonically positive activities, meaning in activities that serve a higher, altruistic purpose, and engagement in attention- absorbing activities. In both samples, grit demonstrated medium-sized associations with an orientation toward engage- ment, small-to-medium associations with an orientation toward meaning, and small-to-medium (inverse) associations with an orientation toward pleasure. These motivational orientations differentially related to the two facets of grit: pursu- ing engagement was more strongly associated with perseverance of effort, whereas pursuing pleasure was more strongly (inversely) associated with consistency of interests over time. Collectively, findings suggest that individual differences in grit may derive in part from differences in what makes people happy.

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STUDY ALERT: The Entire Intelligence-Expertise Debate (UPDATED)

Click here to download the entire intelligence-expertise debate

Contents:

1

Introduction to the intelligence special issue on the development of expertise: is ability necessary?

Douglas K. Detterman

Target Papers:
2

Experts are born, then made: Combining prospective and retrospective longitudinal data shows that cognitive ability matters

Jonathan Wai

3

Putting practice into perspective: Child prodigies as evidence of innate talent

Joanne Ruthsatz, Kyle Ruthsatz, Kimberly Ruthsatz Stephens

4

The role of intelligence for performance in the prototypical expertise domain of chess

Roland H. Grabner

5

Practice, intelligence, and enjoyment in novice chess players: A prospective study at the earliest stage of a chess career

Anique B.H. de Bruin, Ellen M. Kok, Jimmie Leppink, Gino Camp

6

Nature, nurture, and expertise

Robert Plomin, Nicholas G. Shakeshaft, Andrew McMillan, Maciej Trzaskowski

7

Nonsense, common sense, and science of expert performance: Talent and individual differences

Phillip L. Ackerman

8

Deliberate practice: Is that all it takes to become an expert?

David Z. Hambrick, Frederick L. Oswald, Erik M. Altmann, Elizabeth J. Meinz, Fernand Gobet, Guillermo Campitelli

9

Creative performance, expertise acquisition, individual differences, and developmental antecedents: An integrative research agenda

Dean Keith Simonton

 

Responses:
10

Why expert performance is special and cannot be extrapolated from studies of performance in the general population: A response to criticisms

K. Anders Ericsson

11

The Summation Theory as a multivariate approach to exceptional performers

Joanne Ruthsatz

12

What does it mean to be an expert?

Jonathan Wai

13

Accounting for expert performance: The devil is in the details

David Z. Hambrick, Erik M. Altmann, Frederick L. Oswald, Elizabeth J. Meinz, Fernand Gobet, Guillermo Campitelli

14

Nature, nurture, and expertise: Response to Ericsson

Robert Plomin, Nicholas G. Shakeshaft, Andrew McMillan, Maciej Trzaskowski

15

Addressing the recommended research agenda instead of repeating prior arguments

Dean Keith Simonton

16

Facts are stubborn things

Phillip L. Ackerman

REVIEW PAPER: The default network and self-generated thought

The default network and self-generated thought: component processes, dynamic control,
and clinical relevance 

Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna, Jonathan Smallwood, and R. Nathan Spreng 

Though only a decade has elapsed since the default network (DN) was first defined as a large-scale brain system, recent years have brought great insight into the network’s adaptive functions. A growing theme highlights the DN as playing a key role in internally directed or self-generated thought. Here, we synthesize recent findings from cognitive science, neuroscience, and clinical psychology to focus attention on two emerging topics as current and future directions surrounding the DN. First, we present evidence that self-generated thought is a multifaceted construct whose component processes are supported by different subsystems within the network. Second, we highlight the dynamic nature of the DN, emphasizing its interaction with executive control systems when regulating aspects of internal thought. We conclude by discussing clinical implications of disruptions to the integrity of the network, and consider disorders when thought content becomes polarized or network interactions become disrupted or imbalanced.

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STUDY ALERT: Disrupting posterior cingulate connectivity disconnects consciousness from the external environment

Disrupting posterior cingulate connectivity disconnects consciousness from the external environment 

Guillaume Herbet, Gilles Lafargue, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur,
Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Emmanuelle le Bars, François Bonnetblanc, Hugues Duffau

Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies including both patients with disorders of consciousness and healthy subjects with modified states of consciousness suggest a crucial role of the medial posteroparietal cortex in conscious information processing. However no direct neuropsychological evidence supports this hypothesis and studies including patients with restricted lesions of this brain region are almost non- existent. Using direct intraoperative electrostimulations, we showed in a rare patient that disrupting the subcortical connectivity of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) reliably induced a breakdown in conscious experience. This acute phenomenon was mainly characterized by a transient behavioral unresponsiveness with loss of external connectedness. In all cases, when he regained consciousness, the patient described himself as in dream, outside the operating room. This finding suggests that functional integrity of the PPC connectivity is necessary for maintaining consciousness of external environment.

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h/t: Todd Ian Stark

STUDY ALERT: Is there a ‘‘dark intelligence’’? Emotional intelligence is used by dark personalities to emotionally manipulate others

 

Is there a ‘‘dark intelligence’’? Emotional intelligence is used by dark personalities to emotionally manipulate others 

Ursa K.J. Nagler, Katharina J. Reiter, Marco R. Furtner, John F. Rauthmann

Potential ‘‘darker sides’’ of socio-emotional intelligence (SEI) have been repeatedly noted. We examine whether SEI is associated with emotional manipulation of others when used by dark personalities (Dark Triad: narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy). In N = 594 participants, narcissism was positively, Machiavellianism negatively, and psychopathy positively and negatively associated with SEI. Moreover, narcissism and psychopathy moderated links between facets of emotional intelligence and emotional manipulation. Findings are discussed in context of a ‘‘dark intelligence’’ used for malicious intents.

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STUDY ALERT: The Suffocation of Marriage: Climbing Mount Maslow Without Enough Oxygen

The Suffocation of Marriage: Climbing Mount Maslow Without Enough Oxygen

Eli J. Finkel, Chin Ming Hui, Kathleen L. Carswell and Grace M. Larson

This article distills insights from historical, sociological, and psychological perspectives on marriage to develop the suffocation model of marriage in America. According to this model, contemporary Americans are asking their marriage to help them fulfill different sets of goals than in the past. Whereas they ask their marriage to help them fulfill their physiological and safety needs much less than in the past, they ask it to help them fulfill their esteem and self-actualization needs much more than in the past. Asking the marriage to help them fulfill the latter, higher level needs typically requires sufficient investment of time and psychological resources to ensure that the two spouses develop a deep bond and profound insight into each other’s essential qualities. Although some spouses are investing sufficient resources—and reaping the marital and psychological benefits of doing so—most are not. Indeed, they are, on average, investing less than in the past. As a result, mean levels of marital quality and personal well-being are declining over time. According to the suffocation model, spouses who are struggling with an imbalance between what they are asking from their marriage and what they are investing in it have several promising options for corrective action: intervening to optimize their available resources, increasing their investment of resources in the marriage, and asking less of the marriage in terms of facilitating the fulfillment of spouses’ higher needs. Discussion explores the implications of the suffocation model for understanding dating and courtship, sociodemographic variation, and marriage beyond American’s borders.

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STUDY ALERT: Trolls just want to have fun

Trolls just want to have fun

Erin E. Buckels, Paul D. Trapnell, Delroy L. Paulhus

In two online studies (total N = 1215), respondents completed personality inventories and a survey of their Internet commenting styles. Overall, strong positive associations emerged among online commenting frequency, trolling enjoyment, and troll identity, pointing to a common construct underlying the measures. Both studies revealed similar patterns of relations between trolling and the Dark Tetrad of personality: trolling correlated positively with sadism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, using both enjoyment ratings and identity scores. Of all personality measures, sadism showed the most robust associations with trolling and, importantly, the relationship was specific to trolling behavior. Enjoyment of other online activities, such as chatting and debating, was unrelated to sadism. Thus cyber-trolling appears to be an Internet manifestation of everyday sadism.

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STUDY ALERT: Improving Students’ Long-Term Knowledge Retention Through Personalized Review

Improving Students’ Long-Term Knowledge Retention Through Personalized Review 

Robert V. Lindsey, Jeffery D. Shroyer, Harold Pashler, and Michael C. Mozer

Abstract

Human memory is imperfect; thus, periodic review is required for the long-term preservation of knowledge and skills. However, students at every educational level are challenged by an ever-growing amount of material to review and an ongoing imperative to master new material. We developed a method for efficient, systematic, personalized review that combines statistical techniques for inferring individual differences with a psychological theory of memory. The method was integrated into a semester-long middle-school foreign-language course via retrieval-practice software. Using a cumulative exam administered after the semester’s end, we compared time-matched review strategies and found that personalized review yielded a 16.5% boost in course retention over current educational practice (massed study) and a 10.0% improvement over a one-size-fits-all strategy for spaced study.

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h/t: Rogier Kievit